上期回顾

  上期请看人类是否应该成为自己的“神”?

  1

  原文与大意

  The range of reproductive options has steadily widened. AID (artificial insemination by donor, which dates back to the 19th century) and IVF (in vitro fertilisation, first used in the 1970s) have become everyday techniques. So has ICSI, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, in which a sperm cell is physically inserted into an egg, bringing fatherhood to otherwise infertile men. Last year another practice was added—mitochondrial transplantation or, as the headlines would have it, three-parent children. The world may soon face the possibility of eggs and sperm made from putative parents’ body cells(probably their skin) rather than in their ovaries and testes.

  生育方式的选择范围越来越大了。AID(人工授精,从19世纪开始使用)以及IVF(体外受精,首次在20世纪70年代使用)已经变成了非常普通的技术。ICSI,将精子细胞通过物理方法注射到卵细胞从而让用其他方法不能生育的男性成为父亲的细胞质内精子注射技术也变得普遍起来。去年又一项新技术也加入到其中——线粒体移植,或者按照新闻头条所叫的,三个父母所生的孩子。世界很快面临着卵细胞和精子从准父母的身体细胞(很可能是皮肤)中提取,而不是从卵巢和睾丸中取出的可能性。

  Such methods separate sexual intercourse from reproduction. Most of them bring the possibility of choosing which embryo will live, and which will die. At first they can seem bewildering—disgusting, even. But one thing experience has shown is that, in this area, disgust is not a good guide to policy. AID was treated by at least one American court as a species of adultery and its progeny deemed illegitimate in the eyes of the law. IVF led to anguish among some theologians about whether “test-tube” babies would have souls.

  这些方法将性交与繁殖分离开来。这些方法大部分都能选择哪种胚胎能活,哪种胚胎要死。期初这些技术看起来让人不知所措——甚至不能接受。经验显示,在这个领域,厌恶并不能指导政策制定。人工授精至少被一个美国法庭当做通奸的产物,它的后代根据法律被认为是不合法的。体外受精导致一些神学家十分苦恼人工方法产生的婴儿到底有没有灵魂。

  Disgust often goes along with dystopian alarm. Science-fiction versions of gene editing imagine, say, the creation of supermen and superwomen of great intelligence or physical prowess. When Dolly was announced the press was full of headlines about clone armies. In truth no one has the slightest clue how to create Übermenschen even if they wanted to. Yet the record shows how fast reproductive science can progress. So it makes sense to think about the ethics of reproductive science even for outcomes that are not yet available.

  厌恶通常伴随着反乌托邦恐慌。科幻版本的基因剪切一般会想象出比如拥有超凡智力或者超高的身体技艺的超人和女超人。当多利羊的成功被宣布的时候,媒体中充满了关于克隆人军队的头条。实际上即使人们想,也根本不知道如何创造超人。然而现实显示生殖技术发展地十分迅速。所以即使在结果并不清楚的情况下也应该开始考虑生殖技术的伦理问题了。

  2

  词汇

  第一段

steadily 持续地,稳定地

widen变宽

AID:artificial insemination by donor人工授精

insemination受精

IVF:in vitro fertilisation体外受精

in vitro在体外,离体

fertilisation受孕

ICSI:intracytoplasmic sperm injection,单精子注射

fatherhood 父亲的身份

mitochondrial transplantation线粒体移植

headlines 头版头条的大字标题

putative 假定的

eggs and sperm卵子和精子

ovaries and testes卵巢和睾丸,单数是ovary和tietis(一般人说testical,tietis是专业术语)

  第二段

sexual intercourse性交

reproduction繁殖

embryo 胚胎

bewildering令人困惑的,令人不知所措的

disgusting让人厌恶的,让人不能接受的

adultery通奸

progeny 子女,幼崽

deem视为,认为

illegitimate 不合法

theologians 神学家

anguish 痛苦,苦恼

  第三段

dystopian 反乌托邦的,乌托邦指美好的世界,反乌托邦就是指充满了指充满丑恶与不幸之地

gene editing基因编辑,剪切

clone armies克隆人军队

Übermenschen 德语的超人

ethics 伦理道德

读报学英语

ID:RawEnglish

一起阅读原汁原味的英语

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